Parenting Interactions with Children: Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO)

CPP Cohort 4

The Parenting Interactions with Children: Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO)* is an observation checklist completed by clinicians that operationalizes some parenting behaviors that facilitate secure attachment relationships between caregivers and their children.  This checklist shows what caregivers can do to support their children’s development across four domains of parenting behaviors: affection, responsiveness, encouragement, and teaching.

Descriptive Statistics: Pre- and post-treatment assessment measure means, standard deviations, and standard errors for each PICCOLO domain of parenting behaviors (affection, responsiveness, encouragement, and teaching) are listed in the table below, as well as the range of possible scores.

PICCOLO: Descriptive Statistics

*Cut scores indicating below average scores vary based on client’s age in years at administration

Repeated Measures Analyses: Paired samples t-tests were conducted to examine pre-post group mean differences on each PICCOLO domain of parenting behaviors: affection, responsiveness, encouragement, and teaching.  Analyses showed statistically significant improvement in the domain of Encouragement; however, they did not show statistically significant change for the other PICCOLO domains of parenting behaviors, including Affection, Responsiveness, and Teaching. Of note, results should be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size and, thus, low power for analyses.  See the table and graph below for more information on these analyses.

PICCOLO Subscales: Paired Sample T-Test

PICCOLO Subscales: Pre-Post Mean Scores

Individual Clinically Significant Change: At pre-treatment, 2 clients had Affection scores that were below average. Of note, these clients were not missing the Affection score at post-treatment. Analysis of these clients with post-treatment data showed that the Affection score for 2 of 2 clients (100%) increased to an average score by post-treatment. At pre-treatment, 1 client had a Responsiveness score that was below average. Of note, this client was not missing the Responsiveness score at post-treatment. Analysis of this client with post-treatment data showed that the Responsiveness score for 1 of 1 client (100%) increased to an average score by post-treatment. At pre-treatment, 1 client had a Teaching score that was below average. Of note, this client was missing the Teaching score at post-treatment, so individual clinically significant change could not be determined. At pre-treatment, 0 clients had Encouragement scores that were below average.

*Roggman, L.A., Cook, G.A., Innocenti, M.S., Jump Norman, V., & Christiansen, K. (2013). Parenting Interactions with Children: Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes (PICCOLO) in diverse ethnic groups. Infant Mental Health Journal, 34(4), 290–306.

Ainsworth, M.D. (1969). “Maternal Sensitivity Scales: The Baltimore Longitudinal Project.”

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